In 2020 investments and economic impact in land-based and offshore wind energy were 4.93 billion € (6.46 billion € in 2019). While investments in land-based installations have shown an increase to 1.97 billion € (1.48 billion € in 2019), offshore investments dropped by almost 97 % to a very low 70 million € (2.13 billion € in 2019). Meanwhile economic benefits of 2.89 billion € (2.85 billion € in 2019) from wind energy operations stayed stable. Costs for operation and maintenance slightly decreased to 22.09 €/MWh land-based (22.64 €/MWh in 2019) and 21.98 €/MWh offshore (22.63 €/MWh in 2019). Land-based installation costs for 2020 are 1377 €/kW (1,373 €/kW in 2019).
Germany pursues a very broad R&D programme (7th Energy Research Programme), rather than focusing on a specific subject. Two of the main goals are to reduce the cost of energy and to increase turbine reliability. While land-based wind turbine design with new materials and innovative control strategies as well as precise prediction of electricity generation are subject ofcurrent research and development, the challenges of offshore research are maintenance and logistic issues but also increased turbine availability to ensure cost-effective operation. The Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy BMWi has provided a funds flow of 76.06 million € to fund 488 active and ongoing research projects in the field of wind energy in 2020. Additionally, 99 new research projects with a new funding amount of 65.32 million € have been approved in 2020. Another donor of subsidies for wind energy research are the federal states, who provided an additional funds flow of 5.64 million €.
The Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) is contracting party in the IEA Wind TCP for Germany. In 2021, German research institutions and industry representatives are involved in 18 of 23 active research tasks (11, 19, 25, 26, 28, 30, 31, 32, 36, 37, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46 and 47), the German participation on the new task 48 is planned.