Many individual wind and solar integration studies have been conducted in the past. The
integration studies have evolved towards looking at the integration of wind and solar at the
same time. Integration studies typically simulate a future power system with wind and solar
contributions (share or penetration) varying from 5% to more than 50% of annual electrical
supply. The studies seek to evaluate the potential impacts of wind and solar on the grid and on
the operation of power generation. The power systems being studied and the data available
about them vary significantly. Also, the goals and approaches differ, and thus the results are
difficult to compare. The methodologies used in the studies are diverse and are still evolving.
The lack of reliable and comparable knowledge about the effects of variable renewable
generation (i.e., wind and solar PV), including operational practices, can limit the large-scale
development of renewable energy due to uncertainties about its impact. With the growth of
wind and solar deployment and their tremendous potential, it is crucial that commonly accepted
methodologies are applied to accurately assess integration issues. The first Recommended
Practices/Best Practices to guide the conduct of wind integration studies was released in 2013.
This report presents the current view of recommended methodologies, including solar
photovoltaics (PV). As the field is still evolving, future development needs are also pointed
For more information, download Recommended Practice.